Precious metals and stones, including jewellery, are to be declared to Customs.
The new rule will apply to all passengers departing/arriving Russia or the countries in the Customs Union (Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan).
If the items carried are valued over 1 million Rubles (approx. $15k USD) they will tax you at a rate of 30% for everything above the threshold.
Local handlers advise passengers to carry with them some kind of pre-written confirmation of the value of whatever jewellery they are planning to travel with.
If Customs has any doubts, they may seize the jewellery and send away for valuation.